The 1913 Federal Reserve Act is a pivotal piece of legislation in the United States that established the Federal Reserve System, often referred to as “The Fed.” This act was enacted to create economic stability in the U.S. by introducing a central bank responsible for overseeing monetary policy.
Background of the 1913 Federal Reserve Act
The Federal Reserve is a result of various periods of economic turbulence in American history. Before the establishment of centralized national banks, state-chartered or “free banks” issued their own currency backed by gold. The National Banking Act of 1863 reintroduced nationally chartered banks, offering a standardized currency backed by U.S. securities. However, financial market instability in 1893 and 1907 led to market crashes and depressions, which were only alleviated by private interventions from J.P. Morgan. Consequently, banking reform became a priority, and in 1912, President Woodrow Wilson requested a solution from the House Committee on Banking and Finance. This led to the establishment of a decentralized bank through the 1913 Federal Reserve Act.
Key Components of the 1913 Federal Reserve Act
The act outlines the purpose, structure, and function of the Federal Reserve System. Congress has the authority to amend the Federal Reserve Act and has done so on several occasions. Prior to the act, financial panics were common, and private financiers, such as J.P. Morgan, often provided lines of credit to ensure stability in the financial sector. The 1913 Federal Reserve Act granted the Fed the power to print money and implement policy tools to ensure economic stability. The Fed System was created with a dual mandate to maximize employment and maintain stable prices.
The Federal Reserve System Structure
There are 12 Federal Reserve banks, each responsible for a regional district. The seven members of the Board of Governors are nominated by the president and approved by the U.S. Senate. Governors serve a maximum of 14 years, with staggered appointments to limit presidential power. Additionally, appointments should represent all broad sectors of the U.S. economy.
What Powers Does the Federal Reserve Have?
Besides printing money, the Fed has the authority to adjust the discount rate and the Fed funds rate, as well as to buy and sell U.S. Treasuries. The Federal Funds Rate—the interest rate at which depository institutions lend funds maintained at the Federal Reserve to one another overnight—significantly influences the available credit and interest rates in the United States. This measure ensures that the largest banking institutions do not face liquidity shortages. The Federal Reserve utilizes its monetary tools to stabilize economic cycles and maintain adequate money and credit bases for current production levels.
Frequently Asked Questions
What did the Federal Reserve Act accomplish?
The Federal Reserve Act created the Federal Reserve System after being passed by Congress in 1913. The Fed was initially established to combat banking “panics” that were wreaking havoc on the U.S. banking system.
Does the Federal Reserve set interest rates?
Indirectly. The prime rate, used by many lenders, is based on the Federal funds rate. Individual lenders utilize the prime rate as a base for determining interest charges, but they typically add more to generate profit.
How many Federal Reserve Districts exist?
There are 12 districts, with Alaska and Hawaii included in District 12.